‘THE SAGE’-Klein’s Online Newsletter—OCTOBER 2016 
Klein’s Floral & Greenhouses
3758 E. Washington Ave.
Madison, WI 53704
The Spring Bulbs Have Arrived! 
Don’t Forget Sweetest Day or Bosses’ Day
Klein’s Is a One-Stop Shopping Experience for Fall Decor
Our ‘Mad Gardener’ Is Ready for Your Questions
Check Out Our End of Season Savings
How to Plant, Grow, and Save Garlic Bulbs
Meet Klein’s Floral Design Team
Klein’s Favorite Seed, Bulb & Plant Sources
You Asked the Mad Gardener About ‘Garden Blight’
Everything You Need Know about Indoor Bulb Forcing
Plant of the Month:  Ornamental Allium…The Pretty Onions
Our Very Favorite Recipes Using Garlic
Product Spotlight:  Bulk Garlic Bulbs from Seed Savers Exchange
Notes from Rick’s Garden Journal—From September 2016
—About Funnel Weavers
—The Reality of “Hardy” Mums
—From Orange Is the New Black: ‘The Garden as a Metaphor for Humanity’
October in the Garden:  A Planner
Gardening Events Around Town
Review Klein’s @:  Yelp, Google Reviews or Facebook Reviews
Join Us on Twitter 
Follow Us on Facebook
Join Klein’s Blooming Plant or Fresh Flower Club
Delivery Information
Related Resources and Websites
Plants Harmful to Kids and Pets 
We have all of your favorites–tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocus, alliums–and a few not-so-well known treasures for your garden.  Mid- to late October is the best time to plant your spring bulbs (planting too can early promote premature leaf growth) and nothing could be more uplifting after a long winter than crocus, snowdrops and winter aconite blossoms peeking through the snow come spring.  Allow the Klein’s staff to share planting tips and ideas to keep those pesky squirrels from digging up those newly planted bulbs.  And for indoor blooms, don’t forget a few hyacinths, paperwhites and amaryllis (arriving mid-month) for indoor forcing.  We carry a lovely assortment of forcing glasses, vases and decorative pottery.  Forced bulbs make for a n inexpensive and treasured holiday gift.  Any bulb questions?  Don’t forget our Mad Gardener @ [email protected]kleinsfloral.com!
50% OFF all remaining Perennials, Shrubs, Hardy Vines, Potted Fruits & Pond Plants.
A single visit to Klein’s in autumn is sure to inspire creativity when decorating your home both inside and out.  We have it all and under one roof . . . from our homegrown mums, pansies, kales and pre-planted mixed fall containers to fresh floral arrangements for Halloween and Thanksgiving get-togethers to an amazing assortment of fresh pumpkins, gourds, dried grasses, cattails and even hay bales.  And get a jump on holiday shopping from our large selection of UW and Packer themed flags, birdbaths, wind chimes and gift items from Evergreen Enterprises.
“Madison’s Firsthand Source for Expert Gardening Advice”
Ask any of your gardening questions by e-mailing them to us at [email protected].  Klein’s in-house Mad Gardener will e-mail you with an answer as promptly as we can.  We’ve also posted a  link to this e-mail address on our home page for your convenience.  Your question might then appear in the “You Asked” feature of our monthly newsletter.  If your question is the one selected for our monthly newsletter, you’ll receive a small gift from us at Klein’s.  The Mad Gardener hopes to hear from you soon!   
Sorry, we can only answer those questions pertaining to gardening in Southern Wisconsin and we reserve the right to leave correspondence unanswered at our discretion.  Please allow 2-3 days for a response.
Please note that our Mad Gardener is not only an expert gardener, but can answer  all of your indoor plant questions as well. 


Monday thru Friday :  8:00-6:00
Saturday:     9:00-5:00
Sunday:   10:00-4:00
Throughout October watch for great season’s end savings on all remaining perennials.  Check out our selection of spring bulbs.  Tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocus, alliums and much more have arrived for fall planting.  For Halloween and Thanksgiving decorating we carry an amazing selection of gourds, pumpkins, bittersweet, fall leaves, branches, grasses, dried flowers, cattails and hay bales.  Shop early for best selection.   
October 3–Rosh Hashanah
October 10–Columbus Day (observed)
October 12–Yom Kippur
October 15–Sweetest Day
October 15–Full Moon
October 17–National Bosses’ Day 
October 23–Mother-in-Law’s Day
October 31–Halloween.  Choose from one of our many FTD and Teleflora bouquets and centerpieces for your Halloween parties or get-togethers.   For more ideas and easy on-line ordering, check out our Teleflora or FTD websites by clicking on www.flowerskleinsflrl.com or www.florists.ftd.com/kleinsfloral  or talk to one of our designers at 608/244-5661 or 888/244-5661.
Klein’s team of talented designers is available to serve you every day of the week but Sunday.  Darcy Loy, Sue Klein and Michaela Ringhand are here to answer all of your floral and design questions from 8:00 to 4:00 daily.  We not only carry a huge assortment of fresh cut flowers, but also blooming and green plants, balloons and gift baskets.  If you’re not sure what you want, we’d be happy to make suggestions.  
Need something quickly?  Our huge retail cooler is always stocked with vased roses, stunning fresh arrangements in many styles and price ranges and buckets of loose cut flowers from which to pick and choose.  We also have much more in stock, so if there’s something you don’t see—just ask.  
Need to send something out of town?  Why we can do that, too.  We use both FTD and Teleflora for worldwide delivery.   For ideas and easy on-line ordering, check out our Teleflora or FTD websites by clicking on www.flowerskleinsflrl.com or www.florists.ftd.com/kleinsfloral  or talk to one of our designers at 608/244-5661 or 888/244-5661.
Have you had a great Klein’s experience that you’d like others to know about?  If so, we ask you to share your review of us on any of the well-known review websites, i.e. YelpGoogle Reviews or Facebook Reviews.
And just a reminder that Sweetest Day is Saturday, October 15 and Bosses’ Day is Monday, October 17.
I have blight in my garden soil and need to get rid of it!  Please help– I am desperate! Patty
Hi Patty,
I need to know what you mean by ‘blight’ (on what plants, at what time of the year and the symptoms).  That word ‘blight’ means a lot of different things to different people.  What one person calls blight, may actually be a mold, mildew, wilt, rot, rust or many other possibilities.  In addition, there are different types of blight that require different means to control them and at different times in the season.
In tomatoes, for example, late blight just hit our area pretty hard in the past weeks (question received September 1) and there’s not much you can do other than salvage any tomatoes you can.  In the future, not only are the spores soil borne, but they are spread with the wind from surrounding areas.  One’s only hopes are preventative measures:  good garden clean up in fall, crop rotation, using mulch or fabric to prevent spores from splashing up in rains AND a regimen of copper or other fungicide applied weekly starting about two weeks before late blight usually hits.  Even then, given all of these preventative measures, nothing is guaranteed when it comes to gardening.  So much is based on weather, chosen varieties, plant placement and so much more…and that’s only late blight, one of numerous blights to which tomatoes are susceptible.
Thanks for your question,
Klein’s Mad Gardener
. . .  that October is the month to plant your spring bulbs for indoor forcing?  
Enjoy tulips, daffodils, hyacinth and more in the dead of winter and with very little effort.  It’s all a matter of timing and temperature.  All you need are a few favorite bulbs (now available at Klein’s or any garden center), a few 6” or larger pots (plastic, ceramic or terra cotta are all fine) and a cool place, 40º or lower, to store the bulbs for a while.  The back of your refrigerator, a spare refrigerator or a garage that doesn’t freeze, all work well.  We need to trick the bulbs into thinking that winter has occurred and it’s time for spring.  When shopping, look for bulbs that are firm and large for best results.  Use a soilless mix for good drainage.  The below recommended planting depths are for forcing only.  In the garden, bulbs are planted much deeper.  Let’s get started!
TULIPS:  For forcing, choose tulip varieties that say “good for forcing” or similar on the box or package.  These tend to be varieties that remain shorter in pots and, therefore, less floppy indoors.  Types to look for include Single Early tulips, Triumph tulips and Greigii tulips.  Though any tulip will work, these types offer the most success.  They remain short and many are very fragrant.  Plant your bulbs snugly into your pots.  The pointed tip should be just below the soil surface or even slightly exposed.  For best effect, plant around the edge of the pot.  By planting with the flat side of the bulb toward the center of the pot, you can usually fit in an extra bulb or two, depending on the pot size you’ve chosen.  Water thoroughly and put in your cool location for 12 weeks.  Keep moist during the cooling time, but never soggy.  After 12 weeks, place in a bright location and you’ll have a gorgeous pot of tulips in about 3 weeks, depending on room temperature.  Note that your tulips will have sprouted from 1-4” at 12 weeks and that’s OK.  Stagger the moving of your pots into their warm location for weeks of continuous bloom.
DAFFODILS:  Plant like tulips, but slightly deeper.  The bulb tip(s) should be below the soil surface.  As with tulips, the bulbs can be planted snugly.  There is no flat side to the bulb, but planting around the edge of the pot gives the best effect.  Again, choose varieties that remain on the short side to avoid spindly growth.  Best choices include the Miniature Trumpet, Tazetta and Cyclamineus types.  Look specifically for Tête-à-Tête, Jetfire, Jack Snipe, February Gold, Minnow or Topolino for sure success.  Note that daffodil, narcissus and jonquil are all synonymous when shopping for your bulbs.  Again, place your well-watered pots in your chosen cool (40º) location for 12 weeks.  You’ll see about 1-2” of growth at that time.  Move to a bright location and enjoy blooms in 2-3 weeks.  Paperwhites are also a type of narcissus, but do not require a cooling period to bloom.  Paperwhites can be planted in soil or in a pebble-filled bowl with just water.  Either way they’ll bloom in about 4 weeks without any cooling.  If using soil, it’s a good idea to place your planted paperwhites in a refrigerator for 10 days before forcing.  Doing so establishes a sturdy root system and ultimately stockier and healthier plants.  Also note that paperwhites are very fragrant and it’s a love or hate relationship.  Our nonscientific research has shown that only 1/3 of our customers truly like the smell of paperwhites.  The vast majority can’t tolerate the smell–even to the point of nausea.  
HYACINTHS:  Another very fragrant choice.  Hyacinths should also be planted snugly, with their growing tip just below the soil surface.  Water well and keep moist but never soggy.  Unlike tulips or daffodils, hyacinths require only a 10 week cooling period (40º) at which time sprouts will be about 1-1 1/2” tall.  Move to a bright location and blooming will begin in about 2 weeks.  Hyacinths can also be grown in hyacinth glasses.  Simply place a single bulb in the bowl at the top of the glass.  Fill the glass with water until it barely touches the bottom of the bulb.  Place in your chosen cool location.  Because they take up little space, the refrigerator is best.  Add water as needed.  After 10 weeks, white roots should have filled the water in the glass.  Move to a sunny windowsill and enjoy the fragrant blooms in a few short weeks.  Note that the skin on hyacinth bulbs can cause an allergic reaction in some people.  If you’re prone to any sort of plant dermatitis, it’s best to wear gloves when handling hyacinth bulbs. 
Other bulbs that can be forced include crocus, grape hyacinths (muscari) and Dutch iris.   
A few more tips–
–Pre-chilled bulbs, especially hyacinths, are available.  Because they are pre-chilled, they require no more cooling for flowering to occur.  Pre chilled bulbs are difficult to find here in the North, but are readily available in the South where soil temperatures never reach the required temperatures for blooming. 
–Once moved to their “bright location,” keeping your forced pots somewhat cool will keep them blooming longer and less floppy.  If possible, displaying them on a windowsill or as near a window as possible is best.  The cold glass during the winter months will keep your forced bulbs adequately cool.
–Do not store apples in the same refrigerator as your forced bulbs.  Apples produce a gas which promotes ripening.  In bulbs this produces foliage, but no blooms.
–Stagger your blooming by keeping some of your forced bulbs in your cool location for several weeks longer.  Move only a few at a time to your bright, warm location.  You can enjoy indoor blooms from January through April!
–You can plant different bulbs together in a single, forced bulb garden, but note that the different bulbs will bloom at different times–oftentimes with great affect.  Cool a minimum of 12 weeks.
–After blooming, simply toss your forced bulbs.  A lot of energy was used for the forcing process and the bulbs will seldom rebloom in the garden.  The best success occurs with daffodils.  Allow the foliage to yellow and store the bulbs in a cool location.  Come spring, place in the garden with limited success. 
PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT–Each month we spotlight some product that we already carry or one that we’ve taken note of and plan to carry in the near future.  Likewise, if you would like to see Klein’s to carry a product that we don’t currently, please let us know.  Our goal is to be responsive to the marketplace and  to our loyal clientele.  If a product fits into our profile, we will make every effort to get it into our store.  In addition, we may be able to special order an item for you, whether plant or hard good, given enough time. 
Bulk Garlic Bulbs from Seed Savers Exchange of Decorah, IA
For the first time, Klein’s is happy and excited to be offering bulk garlic bulbs from Seed Savers Exchange of nearby Decorah, IA.  If you’ve never been to Seed Savers, it makes for a great day trip at just three hours away.  Set just a few miles north of beautiful and historic Decorah in the Driftless Area of northeastern Iowa, the visitor center, farm and facilities are nestled in a lovely side stream valley of the Upper Iowa River and on top of the surrounding ridges.  The property is riddled with lovely hiking trails rivaling any in the state parks of southwestern Wisconsin.
Each bulb of garlic that we’re carrying from Seed Savers contains about 10 to 16 individual cloves based on variety.  Seed Savers’ heirloom garlic is also organic.  Bulbs are large and firm for guaranteed success.  At Klein’s, we’ve merchandised them in a cooler to prevent premature growth.  They are located in the area along with our other spring blooming bulbs.  
October is the best month to plant garlic for next summer’s harvest, so shop early for best selection.
Klein’s is carrying the following bulk garlic varieties:


Inchelium Red–A soft neck garlic that is mild at harvest but increases in flavor during storage, and with just a touch of spicy heat. Its large 3″ bulbs produce many cloves. A wonderful garlic for all-purpose use where mild flavors are preferred. Its tight coarse tunics make for a long storage life of up to 9 months. Harvest fall planted garlic the following season, late spring or early summer, about 240 days from planting. Harvest spring planted garlic the same season, about 90 days from planting. Averages 10 cloves per bulb. 
Chesnok Red–Chesnok Red is a full flavored garlic with a mellow aftertaste that sticks around nicely for a while. Best baking garlic and a great all-around garlic. Some years it can be hotter or milder than usual, but it is always fully garlicky. Chesnok Red is yet another one of the garlics from the Republic of Georgia in the former USSR. Chesnok is a standard Purple Stripe and has the typical heavy purple striping that gives this variety its name. They have fewer but larger cloves (average of 8 to 10) arranged in a rather circular pattern. Although large bulbs will have about a dozen cloves and even the inner ones are of good size.  Hardneck type.
German Red–Strong, spicy, robust flavor. Well suited for cold winters. German Red, while adaptable, is especially well-suited for cold winters. It’s bulbs are strong and spicy with a robust flavor, and the cloves are easy to peel, which makes them a favorite for chefs and foodies. Bulbs are fairly uniform and have thin, purple-brown skin. Harvest fall planted garlic the following season, late spring or early summer, about 240 days from planting. Harvest spring planted garlic the same season, about 90 days from planting. Averages 14 cloves per bulb. Hardneck.
About Seed Savers Exchange
Seed Savers Exchange was founded in Missouri in 1975 by Diane Ott Whealy and Kent Whealy. Diane’s grandfather entrusted to them the seeds of two garden plants, ‘Grandpa Ott’s’ morning glory and ‘German Pink’ tomato. These seeds, brought by Grandpa Ott’s parents from Bavaria when they immigrated to Iowa in the 1870s, became the first two varieties in the collection. Diane and Kent went on to form a network of gardeners interested in preserving heirloom varieties and sharing seeds. Today, with 13,000 members and 20,000 plant varieties, Seed Savers Exchange makes its home on 890 scenic acres in Winneshiek County, Iowa, at Heritage Farm.
Seed Savers Exchange conserves biodiversity by maintaining a collection of over 20,000 different varieties of heirloom and open-pollinated plants, varieties with the ability to regenerate themselves year after year. These seeds (and tissue cultures or other plant materials, depending on how a plant reproduces) have the power to withstand unforeseen pestilence and plant disease, climate change, and limited habitat, and to stop dinnertime boredom forever.
In the last century or so, the world has lost 75% of its edible plant varieties. That might be hard to perceive when many of us have enough food on our plates, but consider this: According to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization, only five cereal grains make up 60% of our calories. A system that depends so heavily on so few crops is quite fragile. Think of the Irish Potato Famine – the use of only one variety of potato led to a catastrophe. In 1845, the introduction of a new fungus wiped out the primary source of food in Ireland, leading to the death or emigration of some one and a half million people.
Industrial agriculture and the chemicals and machines that it employs have required that farmers and, more often, scientists breed for uniformity in plants and animals. In the United States in particular, genetically engineered plant varieties have had a devastating impact on biodiversity. According to the USDA’s Economic Research Service, since their commercial introduction in 1996, use of genetically engineered (GE) crops by US farmers has increased steadily. In fact, in 2013, 170 million acres of GE crops were planted in the US, seeds that are patented and cannot be saved and planted again next year. That’s roughly half of all American cropland.
It’s no wonder, then, that stewards of seed and heritage varieties are scarce. With no one to teach his or her neighbors and children about the importance of these plants, the art of saving seed dies out, and with it, we lose the precious varieties these mentors safeguarded.
To become a Seed Savers Member; to receive their catalog and mailings and to become a part of their large seed exchange:  www.seedsavers.org/join
NOTES FROM MY GARDEN JOURNAL–Tips and Observations from My Own Garden by Rick Halbach
ENTRY:  SEPTEMBER 7, 2016 (About Funnel Weavers)
Spiders are everywhere in the garden as late summer and early fall approach.  It’s nearly impossible not to walk into the garden among tall plants and not run into the strong webs of the large, “scary” orb weavers, who hang out at the center of their large, stereotypical webs awaiting their prey.  Though all spiders are generally considered beneficial garden inhabitants, they do not discriminate among their prey; which sadly can include beneficial bees and the occasional butterfly…even monarchs.
Going back to my childhood, the funnel weavers have been among my favorite spiders.  Their unique and very dense tunnel-like webs are very common in every nook and cranny in the garden; especially in corners, behind downspouts, under siding and in garages and outbuildings. When young and as entertainment, I would collect up live flies and other insects and toss them into their webs.  As quick as lightning the spider would race from its tunnel, grab the prey and whisk it inside the tunnel.  If the prey’s too big or too feisty, the spider ignores it and retreats back into its lair.
The two most common of the funnel weavers in Wisconsin are the grass spider and the barn funnel weaver.  Both are very shy and will run to shelter to avoid people.  Bites rarely, if ever, occur and it’s assumed the venom is similar in potency to most of our other common garden spiders.
Grass Spider  (Agelenopsis species)
Grass spiders are very common in Pennsylvania and can be recognized by the large, somewhat concave, mostly horizontal, sheet-like web with a funnel or tunnel located off to one side. The webs are found on grass, weeds, and ground covers such as ivy, pachysandra, or periwinkle, and in numerous exterior places such as fencerows, bushes, and brush piles. Homeowners frequently see these fast-moving spiders indoors in the autumn as the spiders seek protection from falling temperatures.
Grass spiders can be identified by their distinctive webs, the dorsal markings on the carapace and abdomen, and the greatly elongated hind spinnerets. Females are from 10 to 20 millimeters and the males from 9 to 18 millimeters in length. The carapace is yellow-brown to brown with a pair of darker, longitudinal bands extending back from the lateral eyes, and another pair of very thin lines located one on each side of the carapace. The abdomen is generally darker than the carapace and has a lighter median band, sometimes with a scalloped edge. The legs are frequently annulated, darker at the distal ends of the segments.
As previously mentioned, the webs are found in many locations and serve as both a platform on which the spider captures prey and as a retreat in which the spiders can remain hidden. The grass spider web is not sticky but relies upon a network of threads above the sheet to divert or impede insect flight, causing them to fall onto the sheet, where they are captured by the rapidly running grass spider.
Barn Funnel Weaver (Tegenaria domestica)
This funnel weaver is found throughout most of the United States, most notably in sheds and barns, around and in the crevices of doors, as well as in the cracks of rock faces and under rocks and boards.
The female barn funnel weaver is from 7.5 to 11.5 millimeters in length and the males range from 6 to 9 millimeters in length. The cephalothorax is red-brown with a covering of pale-yellow hairs and two pale-gray longitudinal lines. The abdomen ranges from a pinkish to a pale flesh color with a pattern of gray to black patches. The legs are spiny with very pale gray annulations at the distal end of the femurs.
The webs are similar to those made by the grass spiders, but they are typically smaller in diameter with the retreat within the web sheet rather than off to one side.
These spiders have been reported to live for as long as seven years, producing upwards of nine egg sacs. The sacs are placed in many different locations close to the web, often suspended above the web from silk lines. The males are frequently found on the web along with the female from May through July, during the mating season. These spiders can be found in structures anytime during the year.


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ENTRY:  SEPTEMBER 11, 2016 (The Reality of “Hardy” Mums)
At this time of the year, we at Klein’s are asked almost on a daily basis where we have our “hardy” mums (versus the ones that invariably die in gardens) or how does one ensure that mums purchased now in the fall will survive the winter.  Both questions make the assumption that mums are truly hardy perennials here in Wisconsin.  The following concise article appeared courtesy of our friend, Lisa Johnson, in today’s Wisconsin State Journal explaining the truth about mum hardiness.    
“This time of year, beautiful, blooming chrysanthemums appear in garden centers. They are a favorite of mine, but they don’t always overwinter well in our area and often struggle in our heavy clay soils. Chrysanthemums don’t tolerate ice and poor drainage well, especially not over winter. So, years when we receive rain on top of snow, or heavy snows that melt and re-freeze on top of plants, we often lose chrysanthemums.
One tip is that the earlier you can get them into the ground, the more likely they are to get established before frost and survive the winter. I often buy some in spring (yes, they are available in the springtime in Klein’s perennial area), but then you don’t get to see the color before you buy! Also, looking for plants that are less root-bound and smaller may be helpful. If the plants are very root-bound, be sure to loosen the roots before planting. Less root-bound plants generally establish better than those in highly root-bound specimens in larger pots. Don’t cut your chrysanthemums to the ground after the first hard freeze like we do with many other perennials. Research has shown that keeping about 12 inches of stems in place protects the crown. It also provides a little protection in spring from late frosts. I leave the old stems in place until the new growth is a little over an inch tall and then cut it back just above the new growth. Make sure your chrysanthemums are planted where they get good sun exposure (at least 6 hours, with preferably some afternoon sun) and have good air circulation. Avoid low spots and areas with really heavy clay soil as planting sites.
If you don’t use a mulch usually in your garden do apply a “winter mulch” (I recommend double-shredded hardwood bark) about two inches deep around the root zone to protect the plant from freeze-thaw cycles in fall and winter. Put down the mulch AFTER the ground freezes unless you already have mulch in the garden. The point of it is to keep the ground frozen. Don’t “bury” the plant, leave about an inch of space between the edge of the clump and the beginning of your mulched area. Chrysanthemums take a little work to get sturdy, dense plants with lots of side branches that bear flowers.
“Pinching” is a process that enables you to control the branching and height of the plant. It’s easy to do, just remove of about an inch of the tip of each branch or shoot by literally pinching it off with your thumb and forefinger. Mums are best pinched two or three times during the growing season. The first pinch should be done when the plant is about six to eight inches tall. Pinching will stimulate the plant to produce side branches and become bushier. After the new growth following the first pinch gets four to six inches tall, pinch out the tips again. With shorter plants, two pinchings are plenty, but for taller more vigorous varieties, you can do a third pinch through about July 4th. Beyond this date, the plants may not have time to form flower buds before fall.
Your mums will flower without pinching (and may flower in late spring but not in fall), but they will look much better and produce more flowers with pinching.
Finally, a few words about fertilizer. Mums are heavy feeders and really benefit from some extra fertility in spring and summer. An all-purpose water-soluble fertilizer with an analysis such as 15-15-15 should be fine and can be applied once in early June and once in early August.”
— Lisa Johnson, Dane County UW-Extension horticulture educator
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ENTRY:  SEPTEMBER 27, 2016 (From Orange Is the New Black: ‘The Garden as a Metaphor for Humanity’)
I spent the evening watching the season finale of the critically acclaimed Netflix series Orange Is the New Black.  At one point during the finale a beautiful passage was read that brought a tear to my eye. I had to find that passage.  It wasn’t hard…it was all over the internet.  I found the following at a site called Garden Collage(gardencollage.com).
“Season 4 of Orange Is The New Black premiered over the weekend, and without giving away any spoilers (other than to say that season ends with a cliffhanger!) we wanted to reproduce one particularly beautiful passage from the final episode of the series, which is titled “Toast Can’t Never Be Bread Again.”
By this point in the season, the inmates at Litchfield have experienced an inordinate amount of tumult and pain, and when things reach a particular low Red (a lead domineering character in the show) takes some of her fellow inmates out into the prison garden and reads them a passage about “the garden as a metaphor for humanity”. The passage was originally taken from Anne Lamott’s Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life, and we think it is so beautiful that we had to reproduce it here:
The garden is one of the two great metaphors for humanity.
The garden is about life and beauty and the impermanence of all living things.
The garden is about feeding your children, providing food for the tribe.
It’s part of an urgent territorial drive that we can probably trace back to animals storing food.
It’s a competitive display mechanism, like having a prize bull, this greed for the best tomatoes and English tea roses.
It’s about winning; about providing society with superior things; and about proving that you have taste, and good values, and you work hard.
And what a wonderful relief, every so often, to know who the enemy is.
Because in the garden, the enemy is everything: the aphids, the weather, time.
And so you pour yourself into it, care so much, and see up close so much birth, and growth, and beauty, and danger, and triumph.
And then everything dies anyway, right?
But you just keep doing it.”
KLEIN’S RECIPES OF THE MONTH–These are a selection of relatively simple recipes chosen by our staff.  New recipes appear monthly.  Enjoy!!
The health benefits of garlic  (Allium sativune) are so well-known and tested that little more need be said here.  Garlic is said to ward off not just disease and assorted ailments (heart disease, certain cancers, infections and high blood pressure-just to name a few), but vampires and witches alike.  This close onion relative is irreplaceable in dishes where it is an ingredient.  When sautéing with vegetables, garlic is best added during the last minute.  Garlic burns quickly and overcooking can increase its bitterness.  For strongest flavor, add toward the end of cooked dishes.  For increased health benefits, garlic is best eaten raw.  Mash potatoes with cooked garlic, butter and a little cream or half and half for a simple taste sensation.  Roasted garlic spread over crusty bread is one of the simplest and most flavorful of appetizers (recipe follows).
In the garden, garlic is best planted in the fall.  Each bulb yields several cloves which are then planted individually and harvested the following season (See the Natural News section below).  Garlic scapes (the flower stalks) are a delicious spring addition to recipes both raw and sautéed.  Klein’s is currently carrying five garlic varieties for fall planting, including Chesnok Red, German Red, Inchelium Red and California Garlic.
ROASTED GARLIC—Nothing could be simpler, more flavorful or healthier!
Preheat the oven to 350º.  Cut the tops off the garlic, leaving the bulbs in tact and exposing the tips of the cloves.  Brush or dab each bulb with a little olive oil and wrap individually in foil.  Place in the preheated oven and bake for 1 hour.  To serve, simply squeeze each clove onto a piece of crusty French bread or crackers.  The texture will be that of softened butter and the flavor will be sweet and mild.
ONION AND GARLIC BEER SOUP—This absolutely delicious recipe appeared in the Willy Street Co-op newsletter sometime in the late 1990’s and remains a favorite.
4 lbs. sweet onions, thin sliced (about 10 medium)
4 large cloves garlic, minced
2 TBS. olive oil
1 x 12 oz. bottle of beer (not dark)
5 1/4 cups beef broth (3 x 14.5 oz. cans)
2 TBS. sugar
2 TBS. butter
4 slices of day old bread, cut into 1/2” cubes
fresh parmesan cheese
In a large kettle, cook the onion and garlic in the oil over medium heat, until lightly browned, stirring occasionally (about 30-40 minutes).  Stir in the beer and broth and simmer, covered, 45 minutes.  Stir in the sugar and season with salt and pepper to taste.  While the soup simmers, melt the butter in a skillet on medium heat.  Add the bread and cook, stirring, until the croutons are golden.  Serve the soup, topped with croutons and sprinkled with parmesan.
GARLIC & OIL SAUCE FOR PASTA—Long a standard in the family of one of Klein’s staff members.  This easy recipe is from Quick and Easy Pasta Recipes by Coleen and Bob Simmons. For extra flavor, add onions, mushrooms or green beans, sautéed in butter. 
16 oz. dry pasta
1/2 cup fruity olive oil
4-6 cloves chopped garlic
1 tsp. dried basil
salt and pepper to taste
While the pasta is cooking, warm the oil in a saucepan.  When it is quite warm, remove the saucepan from the heat and add the remaining ingredients.  The oil should not be so hot as to brown the garlic.  Let the sauce steep while the pasta continues to cook.  Toss the sauce with the hot, drained pasta.  Serve immediately.  Serves 8.
GINGER  TAMARI MARINATED BAKED TOFU—Probably one of the more flavorful and easiest of the tofu marinades we’ve tried.  The longer the tofu is allowed to marinate, the more intense the flavor becomes.  The marinade stores very well and can be used up to three times when stored in an airtight container.  Note the serving tip at the end of the recipe for a truly unique experience! 
Combine the tamari, water, garlic and ginger in a bowl and pour into a shallow glass pan or baking dish for marinating.  Cut the tofu into 1/3” thick slices and place in a single layer in the marinade.  Allow to marinate at least 30 minutes or more.  Preheat the oven to 350º.  Lightly oil one or more baking sheets.  When ready, place the tofu on the sheet(s) in a single layer.  Bake 20 minutes until the top is browning and slightly drying.  Flip and bake 10 minutes more until browning and slightly drying.  Serve over rice or stir fried vegetables.  Simply lay the slices over the top and serve with Asian condiments of choice.
Serving Tip:  Our favorite way of serving the tofu is over a bed of brown rice that has been stirred with a spoonful (to taste) of Maesri Thai chili paste available at local Asian markets.  The paste is available in many flavors–each with its own unique contribution to the dish so experiment!  The paste is very hot so be wary at first!
How to Plant, Grow, and Save Garlic Bulbs
Source:  Seed Savers Exchange
This culinary staple is rarely propagated from seeds. Instead a few aromatic bulbs of garlic are saved from the harvest and replanted year after year.
Garlic plants must be vernalized in order for their bulbs to develop. Plant garlic in the fall, usually between September 15 and November 30, after the first light frost of the year. Keep bulbs intact until right before planting. Break bulbs into individual cloves and plant the largest, healthiest looking cloves with the basal plate – the point where the cloves attached to the bulb – down and the pointed shoot-end up, 6-8” apart. Cover with 2” of soil and a 6” layer of mulch. Do not remove mulch in the spring; it helps control weeds, preserve moisture and provides nutrients as it decomposes.
Cloves may begin to sprout through the mulch in 4-8 weeks, depending on the variety and the weather conditions in your region. Do not be concerned. The plants may suffer some frost or a light freeze and still survive the weather.
When garlic shoots begin to emerge in early spring, ensure even soil moisture by supplying 1” of water per week throughout the growing season. Garlic does not compete well with weeds so keep weeds under control early to ensure a bountiful harvest. Scapes are the curly flower stems that often form as the garlic matures. Cut or break them off after they are 10 inches long and reserve them for eating.
Garlic can suffer damage from nematodes, botrytis rot, and white rot. However, the biggest threat to garlic is weeds. Keep your garlic bed clean and make sure to plant garlic in well-fertilized, loose soil.
Harvest after three or four leaves have died back and there are still five or six green leaves remaining on the plant – sometime in June or July depending on the year and your climate. Do not wait too long or the bulbs will begin to separate in the ground. Loosen the soil with a shovel or pitchfork and then dig the garlic carefully. Do not pull the stalk or it will separate from the bulb. Gently brush most of the dirt off. Tie plants in a bundle of 6-8 plants and hang in a shaded, dry, well-ventilated shed or garage. Leave plants hanging for 4-6 weeks so that bulbs can cure.
Eating and Storing
After thoroughly drying, trim off the roots and cut the stalks off about 1 ½” from the bulb. Store in net bags. For optimum storage, hang in an area with 45-55 percent humidity and a temperature of 50-70 degrees F.
Hold back your nicest bulbs for replanting.
Saving Bulbs
Garlic is vegetatively propagated rather than grown from seeds. To regrow garlic, keep bulbs intact until no more than 1-2 days before replanting, then simply pull apart garlic bulbs and plant individual cloves as described above. Some garlic varieties will produce seeds if scapes are not removed from the plants, but these seeds will not be true to type.
Ornamental Allium (Onions)
Because ornamental onions (the alliums) bloom in summer, they are oftentimes forgotten when planting spring bulbs during October.  While crocus, daffodils, tulips and hyacinths are long finished blooming before gardens begin with their summer perennial show, the alliums, on the other hand, are perfectly suited for the perennial border.  
There are short ones for the edge, mid-sized for the middle of the border and tall ones for interspersing throughout for added height.  Most notable are the huge purple spheres that punctuate Madison area gardens throughout the month of June.  The most famous of these are ‘Globemaster’ , ‘Giganteum’ and ‘Gladiator’.  It’s difficult not to stop and take note when these giant alliums are in full bloom.  Oftentimes, customers had come to Klein’s expecting to find plants in our perennial area.  Only until recently has this been the case as potted alliums have become available (though at a very steep price).  
Traditionally, the alliums are found at garden centers among the spring bulb selection beginning in late August or early September and are best planted in mid- to late October along with their more familiar spring bulb counterparts.  Bulbs for the largest varieties are themselves quite large and sold individually.  The mid-sized varieties like ‘Purple Sensation’ or ‘Star of Persia’ are sold 5 or more to a bag.  The species and shorter types are sold 10 or more to a package.  Though prices have come down in recent years, the giant alliums are still an investment–but a reliable investment in that they are truly hardy perennials that are never bothered by deer or rodents.  Because the large alliums are so impressive, one need add only a few each fall for an impressive display in a few short years.  Alliums make lovely cut flowers and some are especially attractive in bouquets once the flower heads have dried.
Klein’s carries an excellent assortment of all types of allium–in fact, too many to mention here.  But because they’re so popular, make sure to shop early for best selection.
For neighborhood events or garden tours that you would like posted in our monthly newsletter, please contact Rick at (608) 244-5661 or [email protected] or Sue at [email protected].  Please include all details, i.e. dates, locations, prices, brief description, etc.  Events must be garden related and must take place in the  Madison vicinity and we must receive your information by the first of the month in which the event takes place for it to appear in that month’s newsletter.  This is a great opportunity for free advertising.
GLEAM, Art in a New Light
September 1 thru October 28, 2016
Wednesdays thru Fridays from 7:30 p.m. – 10:30 p.m. rain or shine
In the gardens @ Olbrich Botanical Gardens
Definition: Gleam n. a flash of light; n. an appearance of reflected light; v. shine brightly like a star or light; v. appear briefly
GLEAM, Art in a New Light, returns to Olbrich with an exciting new series of illuminated art installations bringing mystery and delight to the outdoor gardens in the evening. Collaborations between artists and lighting designers create objects and effects that feature light as a dynamic physical presence. An evening wander is sure to inspire all ages as each installation engages the senses and sparks wonder! 
GLEAM will be viewable daily, during regular public daytime hours in September and October. When the sun sets, the Gardens will open for extended viewing hours and art installations will be illuminated, inviting visitors to see the Gardens in a whole new light.
Admission for the general public is $13 for adults 13 & up ($11 for members) and $7 for children ages 3-12 ($6 for members).
Tickets available at the door starting at 7 p.m. pending online ticket sales. Gardens will close to the public at 6 p.m. on evening viewing dates. Last ticket sold at 10 p.m.
Olbrich Botanical Gardens
3330 Atwood Ave., Madison
Edible Landscaping
Saturday, October 1, 1:00-3:00 p.m.
Longenecker Horticultural Gardens Tour
Join Judy Kingsbury and Marian Farrior, permaculture designers and Arboretum outreach specialists, as they explore the collection’s edible richness and highlight some of their favorite trees and shrubs. Free, no registration required. Meet at the Visitor Center.
University of WI Arboretum
1207 Seminole Hwy.
Madison, WI 53711
Family Walk:  Why do Leaves Change Color?
Sunday, October 9, 1:30 p.m.-2:30 p.m.
Grady Tract
Enjoy and learn about the wonder of fall color in native trees and prairie grasses. Free, no registration required. Meet at the Visitor Center.
University of Wisconsin Arboretum
1207 Seminole Highway
Madison, WI 53711
Rotary Garden’s Evening Garden Seminar:  Fall Gardening Tasks
Tuesday, October 18, 6:30-8:30 p.m
Rotary Botanical Gardens, 1455 Palmer Drive, Janesville, WI
Fall is an excellent time to be out in the garden for enjoyment but also productivity as the growing season ends. We’ll discuss late season planting, mulching, composting, deer protection and essentially, all those gardening tasks that are ideal to accomplish late in the season before the snow blankets our gardens.
Admission: $3 for RBG Friends members and $5 for the general public.  No registration required
Seminar is conducted by Mark Dwyer, RBG Director of Horticulture
Rotary Botanical Gardens
1455 Palmer Drive
Janesville, WI
Bolz Conservatory Exhibit-Integrated Pest Management
August 8 thru October 30, 2016
Daily from 10:00-4:00
In the Bolz Conservatory
Beneficial insects have been used in the Conservatory since it opened in 1991. These bugs provide control of plant-damaging insects, minimizing the need of more dangerous traditional insecticides. These controls, along with several others, are part of the Conservatory’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. This widely accepted program strives to use the least toxic method of insect and disease control to be more environmentally sensitive. Learn about Olbrich’s environmentally friendly pest control methods and get ideas you can use to reduce or eliminate pesticide use at home.
Olbrich Botanical Gardens
3330 Atwood Ave., Madison
Herb Fair
Saturday, November 5, 9:00-3:00
Olbrich Botanical Gardens
Hear about herbs from speakers and vendors. Purchase herbal products. Make & take projects, demonstrations, and a Q & A station. Free! Sponsored by the Madison Herb Society. Visit www.madisonherbsociety.org.
Olbrich Botanical Gardens
3330 Atwood Ave., Madison
Dane County Farmer’s Market
Saturdays, April 16 thru November 5, 6:00-2:00
On the Capitol Square
Wednesdays, April 22 thru November 4, 8:30-2:00
In the 200 block of Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd.
For details visit www.dcfm.org
Northside Farmers Market
Sundays, May 8 through October 23, 8:30-12:30
In the Northside TownCenter at the intersection of N. Sherman Ave. and Northport Dr. across from Warner Park.    
The Northside Farmers Market is a nonprofit community enterprise. It is one of the newest and fastest growing farmers’ markets in Dane County. In keeping with the innovative spirit of Madison’s Northside, we are surpassing what defines the traditional farmers’ market. Our fundamental principles include:
–Providing an abundant selection of high quality, locally grown foods. 
The market accepts Quest, WIC and Senior FMNP vouchers.


–Supporting our local agricultural entrepreneurs who are increasingly important today in ensuring that we have the best and safest food possible.


–Educating the community about traditional foods and the history of local agriculture in an attempt to preserve (and expand upon) our rich heritage.


–Promoting nutrition and the market by hosting dinners for neighborhood groups and seniors.  
Parking is always FREE!
OCTOBER IN THE GARDEN–A checklist of things to do this month.
**Although the average first frost date for Madison is about Oct. 6, killing frosts have            occurred as early as September 12 (1955).  Be aware of quick weather changes this time of year.  Be prepared to cover tender plants at any time.
___Visit Olbrich, Rotary or Allen Centennial Gardens and note plants of fall interest for         spring planting and best selection.
___Dig new beds now!  It’s easier now than in spring when super-busy.
___Take geranium, salvia, impatiens, abutilon cuttings before the first freeze.
___Plant spring bulbs now! Plant tulips, daffodils, hyacinths & crocus.
___Plant bulbs for forcing and put in a cool location for 10-12 weeks.
___Plant Christmas amaryllis now for holiday blooms; paperwhites now for Thanksgiving blooms.
___Apply a systemic pesticide to plants to be wintered over indoors.
___Move potted bulbs to be stored like begonias, callas, caladiums and cannas to a garage so they can dry out before storage.
___Dig up and store dahlias, glads, cannas and elephant’s ear after tops freeze.
___Continue planting deciduous shrubs and trees until the ground freezes.
___Divide and plant perennials as desired.
___Clean up stalks and leaves of annuals and vegetables, preventing viruses and pests for  next year’s garden.
___Continue harvesting brussels sprouts, kale, greens and root crops.
___Plant garlic.  October is the best time.
___Stop deadheading perennials for winter interest, i.e. sedums, grasses, etc.
___Cut perennials back to 4-6”, leaving those for winter interest.
___Collect seeds for next year’s garden.
___Plant winter rye as a cover crop for spring tilling.
___Make notes in your garden journal for changes, improvements, etc.
___Take pictures of your garden for record keeping.
___Mow the lawn at shortest setting for last mowing of the season.
___Visit Klein’s—Great selection of mums, kales, cabbages, pansies & more!
Some of our very favorite seed and plant sources include:
For seeds:
Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds @ www.rareseeds.com or 417/924-8887
Harris Seeds @ www.harrisseeds.com  or 800/514-4441
Johnny’s Select Seeds @ www.johnnyseeds.com or 207/861-3901
Jung’s Seeds @ www.jungseed.com or 800/247-5864
Park’s Seeds @ www.parkseed.com or 800/845-3369
Seeds of Change @ www.seedsofchange.com or 888/762-7333
Territorial Seeds @ www.territorialseed.com or 888/657-3131
Thompson & Morgan @ www.thompson-morgan.com or 800/274-7333
For bulbs:
Brent & Becky’s Bulbs @ www.brentandbeckysbulbs.com or 877/661-2852
John Scheeper’s @ www.johnscheepers.com or 860/567-0838
McClure & Zimmerman @ www.mzbulb.com or 800/883-6998
For plants:
High Country Gardens @ www.highcountrygardens.com or 800/925-9387
Logee’s Greenhouses @ www.logees.com or 888/330-8038
Plant Delights Nursery @ www.plantdelights.com or 912/772-4794
Roots and Rhizomes @ www.rootsrhizomes.com or 800/374-5035
White Flower Farm @ www.whiteflowerfarm.com or 800/503-9624
Note:  To receive every possible seed, plant or garden supply catalog imaginable, check out Cyndi’s Catalog of Garden Catalogs @ www.gardenlist.com.  Most catalogs are free and make for great winter reading! 
BEHIND THE SCENES AT KLEIN’S–This is a sneak peek of what is going on each month behind the scenes in our greenhouses.  Many people are unaware that our facility operates year round or that we have 10 more greenhouses on the property in addition to the 6 open for retail.  At any given moment we already have a jump on the upcoming season–be it poinsettias in July, geraniums in December or fall mums in May.
—We’ve put any leftover perennials to bed for the winter in one of out unheated back greenhouses.  It’s been a good season…we have very little left to pack away.
—We begin shutting down the back greenhouses.  They remain unheated for the winter allowing energy savings and pest control.
—Weatherizing continues.  We seal up and insulate unused doors and caulk up air leaks.  Water is shut off to the greenhouses not used during the winter.
—Pots, cell packs and trays arrive from our wholesalers in preparation for next spring.  Most are stored in the unused greenhouses out back.  It’s only 3 months till the first of next year’s geranium crop arrive (we already have some of next season’s tropicals).
—Plants begin arriving for the big Garden Expo at the Alliant Energy Center in February.  Herbs, primrose and cool-loving annuals are arriving enforce.
—Cyclamen and azaleas continue to arrive for winter sales.
—We send out our mailings to local churches regarding poinsettia and blooming plant information for the upcoming holidays.  We are proud to say that hundreds of area churches and businesses are decked out with Klein’s HOMEGROWN poinsettias during the holiday season.
—By month’s end the poinsettias begin to change color.  Looking across the greenhouses, one begins to see hints of red, pink and white.  We’ve moved many of our poinsettias into our retail area from the back greenhouses before cold weather sets in.